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© Quintus Curtius and Fortress of the Mind Publications™, 2013-2017. Quintus Curtius is the proprietor of Fortress of the Mind Publications™ and owns all rights thereto.
Here therefore we may divide all the perceptions of the mind into two classes or species, which are distinguished by their different degrees of force and vivacity. The less forcible and lively are commonly denominated Thoughts or Ideas . The other species want a name in our language, and in most others; I suppose, because it was not requisite for any, but philosophical purposes, to rank them under a general term or appellation. Let us, therefore, use a little freedom, and call them Impressions; employing that word in a sense somewhat different from the usual. By the term impression , then, I mean all our more lively perceptions, when we hear, or see, or feel, or love, or hate, or desire, or will. And impressions are distinguished from ideas, which are the less lively perceptions, of which we are conscious, when we reflect on any of those sensations or movements above mentioned.
(edited by Bart Ehrman , replacing Kirsopp Lake 's edition)
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The battle began with the Persians already present at the battlefield. Darius had recruited the finest cavalry from his Eastern satrapies and from an allied Scythian tribe and deployed scythed chariots , for which he had ordered bushes and vegetation removed from the battlefield to maximise their effectiveness. He also had 15 Indian elephants supported by Indian chariots .